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Level crossing

PL. Electromechanical equipment that constitutes the protection system of the homonymous crossing between tracks and road network, in which the iron plane is at the same level as the road surface. Each level crossing, constituting a point of potential danger for railway and road circulation, is equipped with intrinsically safe equipment necessary for maneuvering the barriers when the train passes. The classifications of level crossings can be multiple, according to the characteristic taken into consideration. They can be distinguished on the basis of: position; traffic; type of protection; mode of operation; closing regime (on schedule, regulated according to the actual circulation of the trains, automatically arranged when the trains pass); protection accessories (shelter areas or pitches, display devices in the attended places, guard strands for electrified lines); shunting and closing equipment. In relation to the position, they are distinguished in level crossings of station, located between the protection and start signals (that is, within the limit pegs of the maneuvers of a station) and level crossings of the line. With reference to road traffic, they are divided into level crossing pedestrian and level crossing carriageways, generally the pedestrian crossing is also included. The level crossings closures consist of barriers or semi-barriers, in the level crossingsguarded they are generally open to allow the passage of road traffic and are closed only before the passage of the train; in level crossings with opening on request (more rare), the barriers are normally closed and are only opened upon users’ request; in the level crossings delivered to private individuals, the barriers are managed by the users themselves. The barriers can be made up of different elements: bars or rods that can be lifted (the most widespread, open by placing themselves in a vertical position), or swiveling (they open by placing themselves alongside and parallel to the road, remaining in a horizontal position); gates that can be swiveling (they open sideways and parallel to the road) or sliding (they open sliding parallel to themselves); movable stands, used only in the event of failure of normal barriers. In some cases, half-barriers can be used, which only block half of the carriageway in the direction of travel of road vehicles, even if the protection of level crossing usually affects the road for its entire width. In level crossings that involve only pedestrian traffic, the barriers can be replaced by a pinwheel that, by slowing the pedestrian’s progress, invites him to proceed with caution; a pinwheel has been designed recently with remote closure in safety analogous to the barriers. In most cases the protection of the train side level crossing is made with the normal first class light signals preceded by warning signs; they can be replaced, in particular cases, by other luminous signals or signs having, according to the needs, imperative or warning, level crossing signal. The closing of the level crossing equipped with barriers can be carried out on site, at a distance and automatically by action of the train on special devices (Pedal) for release. In correspondence with the road side level crossing is provided the signs required by the Highway Code

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