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Light signals

Fixed signals consisting of an electrically operated light that projects lights of different colors towards the train, which change according to the signals; the colors that can take on the individual lights are: red, yellow, green; the lights can be fixed or flashing, single or grouped. The light is usually located in the middle of a black disk surrounded by white (round sail). The luminous signals can be mounted at the upper end of a vertical stand, fixed to the ground, or can be hung on shelves. They can be first-class or warning. The first category light signals are always preceded by a warning signal which must be located at a braking distance with respect to the first category signal. The warning signal provides the indications of warning of free way and of warning of prevented way; it therefore has the function of announcing the presence and appearance of the next first-category signal: if the first-category signal is prevented, the warning signal provides an indication of a roadside warning; in this way the driver is able to start braking and stop the train before passing the first-class signal; if the signal of first category is free, the warning signal provides the indication of the go-ahead, which allows the driver to continue the train ride at the maximum allowed speed; the warning signal can also provide the indication of free way with speed limitation, so the driver, after the first-class signal, must continue at the speed indicated by the warning signal (30, 60 Km / h or other). The stand on which the warning signal is located, ispainted with alternating black and white horizontal stripes; in this way, in the event of shutdown, they can be distinguished from first-class signals; they are always simple and can have up to two overlapping lights. The first category signals are placed before the service location and the section of the line that you want to protect. The first category signals are able to provide the indications of free way (vl) and of prevented way (vi); they can be simple or multiple; simple signals can have up to three overlapping lights, they can give only one indication, either for the correct track or for the deviation; the multiple signals are constituted by a set of two or more simple signals applied to special stakes arranged in a stanchion or in other suitable supports; they can give separate signals, distinct for each itinerary or group of routes that branch off from the point protected by the signal, they are in fact previously placed at junctions or branch stations. The first-class signals,installed in full line, protect the spacing sections (block sections), each section being delimited by a first-class signal preceded by a warning signal; they are also used: to protect the service areas, with the function of preventing a train from entering if the tracks are already engaged or are about to be engaged by other trains or by maneuvering movements (protection signal); to prevent a train from engaging the outgoing section of the line, if not authorized (starting signal); to indicate speed limitations on the exchanges, in this case the indication is provided by the combination of the first category signal and the corresponding warning signal (coupled signals). The signals are normally located to the left of the track to which they refer and must be positioned in the immediate vicinity of the track itself; only the signals referring to trains that run along the right track of a line equipped for this purpose are located on the track, in this case, the signals have a square-shaped sail

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