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Locomotive

Traction vehicle used for towing other rolling stock, coaches and wagons. The locomotives are distinguished according to the type of energy used (steam, diesel, electric). Steam locomotives no longer used in modern railways. Electric locomotives are generally the most widespread on the Italian network. The main parts of an electric locomotive can be divided into: mechanical parts, electrical parts and driving cab. The mechanical part is characterized by: running gear, formed by the assembly of the bearing rooms (axles) (supporting the weight of the machine, case and frame) and by the driving rooms; transmission, which ensures the return of traction from the crankshaft to the wheels, connecting the axles with the pinion of the electric motor; the wagon, consisting of the set of running gear and frame (formed by two steel sides connected to two crosspieces, supports the various parts of the engine and rests, through suspension springs, on the wheel axles); the trolleys, equipped with suspension devices to support the carriage and the case (they can have two or three axes, depending on the functions, load-bearing axles or driving axles); the casing, which houses the driving cabins (with the low voltage control and control organs) and the isolated environments (with safety devices to which the electrical equipment and high voltage auxiliary services are connected). The electrical part consists of: traction motors; high voltage equipment, designed to open and close the circuits for supplying the relevant motors; power socket components (pantographs), and the cable that carries current inside the cabin. Each locomotive has two driving cabins, one for each direction of travel, separated by a central compartment where the engines and high voltage equipment are located. The main structural components of a diesel locomotive are similar, except the engine apparatus, which can also be of the electro-diesel type (electric generator driven by the diesel unit). The locomotives are divided into various classes (groups), in particular, according to the type of running gear, the adjustment of the engine, as well as according to the general traction characteristics and operational missions

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